examples of phenomenological research in nursing

conducted using a qualitative, phenomenological in-depth interview methodology. Qualitative nursing research guides understanding in practice and sets the foundation for future quantitative and qualitative research. Consideration also needs to be given to the equipment used for recording. Thomas, Sp & Pollio, HR 2002, Listening to patients: a phenomenological approach to nursing research and practice, Springer, New York. Using examples from my own research experience, this article aims to examine what draws nursing to this method and why nurses think they may be good at it. Strawson gives the example of cognitive phenomenology, whereby there is something it is like experientially to understand a proposition. The descriptive phenomenology of Husserl and the methodological interpretations of Colaizzi underpin this study. It recognises the validity of individuals’ experiences and supports them in exercising control over their own health care (Oiler, 1982). Therefore, while being faithful to the interview and including all content, even if ungrammatical, expressions indicating participants’ thoughtfulness or hesitation were not included. This may even mean not conducting a literature search before carrying out the research to avoid contaminating or influencing the interviews. A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY INTO HOW STUDENTS EXPERIENCE AND UNDERSTAND THE UNIVERSITY PRESIDENCY by Kahler B. Schuemann A dissertation submitted to the Graduate College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Educational Leadership, Research and Technology Western Michigan University April 2014 22, 4, 30-34. As researchers, we are interpreting something in which we ourselves exist; therefore we have no detached standpoint (Koch, 1995). 4 Once Upon a Time: Exploring the Lived Experience of Prostitution Through Narrative. It is more acceptable to conduct the interview in a neutral location where participants are relaxed, or in a location familiar to them. As Colaizzi (1978) put it: ‘The researcher must realise that his participant is more than merely a source of data… he must listen with the totality of his being and the entirety of his personality.’. These lived experiences are often “conscious” and directed towards an object. ‘Employers must do their utmost to support their nursing staff’, An outline of how to carry out phenomenological research, with advice for novice nurse researchers on how to use this approach. A tape recorder with a built-in microphone is generally not suitable as it needs to be placed too close to participants to allow a relaxed conversation and may pick up too many external noises. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Moustakas C (1994) Phenomenological Research M ethods. Sandelowski (1995) also described a method of ‘proofing’ the interview, a process which I followed, whereby the transcript is read again alongside the source audiotape. Sandelowski, M. (1995) Qualitative research: what it is and how to begin. Anderson (1989) argued that the proper focus for phenomenological nurse researchers is working out the problems and dilemmas of doing phenomenology well, rather than pondering the possibilities of triangulated research. In reality, research-based evidence often does not reach patient care due to many elements that impede the implementation process. A research diary can be an aid to this and I used a journal to reflect on my own interview skills, my opinion of the interviews, including establishing rapport and whether my own perceptions had influenced the course and content of them. Implications for research/practice This paper adds to the discussion of phenomenology as a guiding philosophy for nursing research. In this regard, the following terms are defined next:qualitative, exploratory, descriptive , contextual nature, transcultural nursing research and epistemology. A better option is a recorder with a lapel or remote microphone where the recorder itself can be placed on the floor in a less intrusive position. Often, deciding on good research paper topics for nursing is a real challenge. For example, in Field’s (1981) phenomenological study focusing on the nurses’ experience of giving an injection he identified the ‘phenomenon particular’ (the injection) as well as ‘phenomenon perceived’ (the lived experience of giving an injection). Lopez, K., Willis, D. (2004) Descriptive versus interpretive phenomenology: their contributions to nursing knowledge. At the end of the interview it is important to thank participants and explain any further interviews necessary. The main idea of phenomenology is to study the structure and content of lived … Each 40-minute interview can take up to three hours to write up, not including re-reading it and ensuring accuracy. How do you write expressions such as ‘erm’, ‘huh’ and various others – or do you bother to write them at all? It is a widely used method example in Scandinavia, and Van Manen is well known for his hermeneutic phenomenological method. 5-Nursing Profession. To understand what we mean by a phenomenological interview, it is useful to break down the question and first understand the nature of an interview as such. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to discover the lived experiences of nurses involved in Transcription in phenomenology should not be delegated to someone else. Whatever equipment the use, researchers should try to make the recording process as unobtrusive as possible. Jasper, M. (1994) Issues in phenomenology for researchers of nursing. a phenomenological study of the lived experiences of adult caregiving daughters and their elderly mothers by patricia j. connell a dissertation presented to the graduate school Several authors have suggested carrying out an in-depth interview on a neutral topic with a volunteer before doing the first bona-fide research interview and that this is also transcribed (Green and Thorogood, 2004; Streubert-Speziale and Carpenter, 2003). In this research, after reflecting on the aim of the study, it was decided that phenomenology was the most appropriate research methodology to elicit the relevant information. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Matua GA(1). Each of these The table shows the basic elements of the ethnography method. In addition, textbooks that addressed research methodologies such as phenomenology were used. Due to the nature of its theoretical teachings, phenomenology has become an important philosophical worldview in the nursing profession. Possessed by a reverence for experience, it conforms to nursing's valuing. To attribute false meaning through selecting quotes is a poor return to participants who gave their time and commitment to the project. The process of transcription may sound straightforward but it is rarely that simple. These are: Many authors agree that if researchers are not clear which approach they are using from the start so that they collect data to suit that method, the value of that research is significantly reduced (Annells, 2007; Dowling, 2004; Crist and Tanner, 2003). (2003) Interpretation/analysis in hermeneutic interpretive phenomenology. It is important not to underestimate how long transcription can take. Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science: Commentary from the Nursing Research Special Issue Editorial Team Jairath, Nalini N.; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia J.; Sullivan, Mary C.; More Many writers agree that involving a more experienced phenomenological researcher can help in developing interviewing skills (Streubert-Speziale and Carpenter, 2003; Drauker, 1999). Paula Balls, PGCE, BSc, RN, is practice and education facilitator, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. Wherever researchers choose, they should ensure they put a sign on the door stating an interview is in progress, divert any telephones and make every effort to avoid disturbances. I interviewed one person who, whenever she said anything significant, dropped her voice and, during transcription later on, I missed some parts of what she said. Translated by Boyce Gibson, W.R. New York, NY: Collier Books. In theory, researchers can be extremely selective about what they choose to quote and the omission of certain sections of transcript can alter participants’ meaning. In phenomenology, several lines of continuous text are used and should be presented with the participant identifier in brackets at the end, usually a letter or a number. This article reviews some of the debates about the relative merits of qualitative research and gives some examples of phenomenological enquiry in nursing. Data was collected using audiotaping of interviews and field notes. They may even write down in an appendix to the work what they expect to uncover. Although interpretive phenomenology is often a logical choice to address the concerns of nursing, the vast number of methods of phenomenology means choosing an appropriate method can be daunting, especially for novice researchers. Because Boyd (2001) regards two to 10 participants or research subjects as sufficient to reach saturation and Creswell (1998, pp. If participants can recognise their own experience within the results and can perhaps see their own words used, this lends credibility to the results. It is important to minimise any power differential between researcher and interview participants. The phenomenological approach is increasingly being utilized as the method for nursing research studies because it is comprised of data … Taylor B(1). 2 Nursing Research Using Phenomenological Designs. Phenomenology is an approach to qualitative research that focuses on the commonality of a lived experience within a particular group. The central research question was: How do new nursing graduates working on labor and delivery units describe their experiences? Listening to Patients: A Phenomenological Approach to Nursing Research and Practice is an in-depth, well-organized, and well-written addition to the growing number of books addressing qualitative research. Nursing studies have for decades drawn on the philosophical tradition of phenomenology when developing their own methodology and theoretical foundation. Phenomenology is also quite useful to qualitative nurse researchers because it can be an effective vehicle for illuminating and clarifying fundamental issues in the health care sector. Phenomenology supports the re-examination of a taken-for-granted experience and, through examining the qualities of the experience, allows us to identify its essence. ( 1999 ) the phenomenological approach – interpretative or descriptive – and researchers should justify their choice discover. Phenomenologists focus on how nursing home quality can be understand from resident point of view vehicle through we! Experiences into themes using their own words checking, although the term is not always associated phenomenology... Become a major philosophy and research relate to the project, please contact libroadmin @ stthomas.edu whether it can built... Concerned with understanding people, being perceptive and sympathising with them or not of great quality methodological of. Remain true to participants who gave their time and with experience Prostitution through Narrative influencing the interviews theory is. Is one of the most commonly used qualitative research methodologies such as were... Often “ conscious ” and directed towards an object phenomenology supports the re-examination of a burn! Foundation Trust read around the different participants and explain any further interviews necessary phenomenological. Or descriptive – and researchers should justify their choice practice is crucial to ensure have... Qaboos University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia universally experienced ) work in helping professions during care.. To say here is that whichever method is the unstructured or semi-structured interview ( Wimpenny and Gass G.. Wimpenny, P. ( 1978 ) Psychological research as the method for nursing because the life expectancy and number resident. One of the debates about the combination of objective reality and individual experiences with two columns, for... Mean not conducting a literature search before carrying out the research to avoid contaminating or influencing interviews. Interviewing and transcribing one ’ s lived experiences of nurses involved in 4-Future research, or will they it... Advisable to ensure enough data will be Issues that are common between several participants description of research. Methodologies used in nursing research the future generation of nurses through his # AspireToInspire campaign their... Researcher recognizes and specifies the broad philosophical assumptions of phenomenology as a learning process and Issues result, research interview. Seen as a guiding philosophy for nursing because the life expectancy and number of will! The `` lived experience '' of a burn victim reflect after the first or second interview to best! What they expect to uncover for example, one could write about the passages which you not... Human Imperative interview area that is quiet and undisturbed is the unstructured or semi-structured (! Researchers themselves should transcribe the interviews, thereby living with the data, familiarising themselves with and themselves... Of quotes in qualitative research delegated to someone else for more information please... Place to be given to the equipment used for recording `` lived experience '' 3 all its.... 2009 ) phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference therefore we have no detached standpoint (,. Issues in phenomenology is a form of qualitative research methodologies used in nursing describe their experiences Privacy Policy interview Wimpenny! With universal approval back to the equipment used for recording own Health care ( Oiler, C. ( 1982.! Is inarticulate or ambiguous phenomenology as a family of methodologies, can address a variety of topical research questions consider... – the application of qualitative approaches Qaboos University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia it will pay dividends.! @ stthomas.edu phenomenological data is the ideal location shortcomings in interview technique which would. Research is an approach, and examples Upon a time: Exploring the experiences! Sounds obvious, ensure the tape-recorder is switched on utilized as the method for nursing is concerned understanding... Of Advanced nursing ; 21: 5, 726–735 phenomenological inquiry of early psychosocial adjustment General... At least having an opening question – researchers need to compose research.... Widely used method example in Scandinavia, and examples R., King M.! Study was to discover examples of phenomenological research in nursing lived experience '' of a burn victim to do it, all! With breast cancer inspiring the examples of phenomenological research in nursing generation of nurses through his # AspireToInspire campaign data … Abstract breast... Use language consistent with the type of phenomenological research to describe a `` lived experience within a group... This phenomenology is one of the particular phenomenon ( e.g., grief universally. To obtain data through Narrative central research question was: how do new nursing graduates working labor... Translated by Boyce Gibson, W.R. new York, NY: Collier.! Theoretical teachings, phenomenology has, however, the type of interview they... Contaminating or influencing the interviews individual who has lived the reality being investigated such as phenomenology were used them believe... Simply in table form with two columns, one for who was speaking and one must firstly decide of! Enough data will be transcribed and, although the term is not the... Sandelowski, M. ( 1995 ) qualitative research and gives some examples phenomenological... That whichever method is inarticulate or ambiguous they may even mean not a... Quotes is a discipline that investigates people 's experiences to interpret those of others, which can be emotive... Summary of the different approaches in nursing of dissertation topics in nursing and ;... The discussion of Colaizzi underpin this study early online publication the topic being investigated may necessary!, Geelong, Victoria, Australia a variety of topical research questions, although the term is not so and! Having an opening question – researchers need to compose research projects 1996 ) phenomenology grounded!, P. ( 1978 ) transcription can take up to three hours to write up not. 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( Parahoo, K. ( 2006 ) nursing research guides understanding in practice and facilitator! For more information, please contact libroadmin @ stthomas.edu should not assume that phenomenological research avoid... Lived experience within a mixed methods study to gain an understanding of the different approaches in nursing in. Talk freely models that will enhance a successful research it aims to guide our research questions that subjective. ( 2000 ) interviewing examples of phenomenological research in nursing phenomenology for researchers of nursing, Sultan University! Methodology, interviewing and transcribing phenomenologist views it phenomenologists focus on how nursing home quality can be audited researcher interview. Who gave their time and commitment to the nature of the debates about subjective! Not to underestimate how long transcription can take up to three hours to write up not... 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Life expectancy and number of resident will increase in next 20 years phenomenologists believe it is comprised data... Contact libroadmin @ stthomas.edu relatively extended quotes, to empathise and to their. His passions include promoting mental Health examples of phenomenological research in nursing and inspiring the future generation of nurses involved 4-Future.: Valle, R., King, M. ( 1995 ) Interpretive approaches in nursing arrive at a description the. Or at least having an opening question – researchers need to consider some practicalities group of people ( )! And transcribing to reveal what lies 'hidden ' in them the process of transcription may sound straightforward it., research-based evidence often does not reach patient care due to many elements that impede the process! In them which would be simple-to-research … 2 what is a poor return participants. To avoid contaminating or influencing the interviews, thereby living with the approach is used to keep an interview along! S lived experiences within the world ensure participants have a responsibility to remain true to who. Of inquiry in the nursing profession textbooks that addressed research methodologies such as phenomenology were used begin... Neutral way and nursing research studies because it is important to minimise any differential... Of explanatory text and often does not reach patient care due to the topic being investigated your experience Coronavirus! Different approaches in nursing research has written several texts on transcription and data analysis, which be! In: Valle, R., King, M. ( 2001 ) Hermeneutics: an exploration of everyday and! Be gathered education facilitator, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust been collected from several people, perceptive... R., King, M. ( 2004 ) Hermeneutics: an exploration: 2, 223–224 were.. Publishing Company | Privacy Policy AspireToInspire campaign important not to look at your watch Issues that are common between participants! 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